An endoscopy of the urinary bladder carried out with a cystoscope via the urethra is known as Cystoscopy (Bladder Endoscopy) or Cystourethroscopy. A cystoscope is a long flexible tube that can be inserted into the bladder through the urethra in order to examine the inside of the bladder. It may be necessary if you are facing problems when urinating like painful urination. A cystoscopy can also help identify underlying bladder conditions. Moreover, the doctor can also pass surgical equipment through the endoscope to take a sample of your bladder tissue in order to examine it more closely (biopsy).